The online Library provides a range of articles, website links & resources for educators & students
Hank Young





The following links provide information relating to the study of English and English Communication including resources on Media & Debating

English Literature

Literature Online Literature Library
Fiction in Australia How a Book gets reviewed
Quotations Short Stories
Free online resources for students Free eBooks: The ultimate guide
Read Books Online without download Children's Digital Library

 Indigenous Literacy

Indigenous Literacy Foundation Australian Aboriginal Words
What Works   Aboriginal Literacy Strategy 
Improving outcomes Approach to teaching Literacy 
Curriculum Leadership  Cultural insights for teaching

 Fairy Tales, Myth, Folklore, Legends & Dreamtime Stories

Australian Legendary Tales Native American Folklore
Jerilderie Letter Aboriginal stories
Australian identity Ned Kelly - Hero or Villain?
Fairy Tales Aboriginal Myths and Legends


Maralinga, the Anangu Story Brave New World 
My Girragundji  Brave New World? 
The House on River Terrace    Aboriginal Education K-12
The Barrumbi Kids    Books About Australian Indigenous People
Dougy    The Burnt Stick 
Gracey Stolen Girl
Riding the Black Cockatoo


Crow Country Tomorrow When the War Began 
Salem Withchcraft Trials My Place - Sally Morgan
The Crucible   My Place - Nadia Wheatley
Shakespeare Study Guides  
Nanberry: Black Brother White The China Coin
Walking the Boundaries Nona & Me
Rabbit Proof Fence Angela

 Films - Film Reviews & Writing

Teach with Movies The Internet Movie Database
Making the most out of Movies in the Classroom Writing film review
Ronin Films Screen Australia
Free children's Learning Network Metro Magazine
Film Education
Damaris Media Australia Screen

 Media, Censorship & Free Speech

Four Corners Australian Classification
World Newspapers Australian Copyright Council
A History of Newspapers Independent News Services
Electronic Frontiers National Library Site for Archive Newspapers (1803 - 1954)
Australian Civil Liberties Union ABC TV Education

 Indigenous Films, Television & Documentaries

Australian Aboriginal Movies and Films   Indigenous Drama 
Where the Green Ants Dream Aboriginal movies & DVDs
Dreamtime Story Animations Indigenous Documentary 
Ten Canoes  Whispering In Our Hearts
Storm Boy Enhance TV - Indigenous Studies
Indigenous Film & Television Film & Television with Indigenous Content

How Aboriginal film evolved over different periods:

Uncivilised" (1930s-1950s)
This period focuses on the conflict between white settlers and Aboriginal people who are portrayed as 'black devils', violent, uncivilised, murderers and an inferior race. Aboriginal Australians on film are often played by non-Aboriginal people in blackface.
Examples: Uncivilised (Chauvel 1936), Bitter Springs (Smart 1950), Jedda (Chauvel 1955)

Mysterious and misunderstood (1970s)
Aboriginal characters start playing a greater role in films. Films present them as helpful, kind and knowledge-keepers of the land. But they appear separated from both non-Aboriginal actors and audience, and presented as mysterious and misunderstood.

During this period the first films shot by Aboriginal directors (who are often young and fiery activists) appear, discussing social and political Aboriginal issues.

Examples: Walkabout (Roeg 1971), Ningla A-Na (Cavadini 1972), Blackfire (McGuiness 1972), Stormboy (Safran 1976), Backroads (Noyce 1977), My Survival as an Aboriginal (Coffey 1979)

White Australia's black history (1980s)
In the 1980s the Australian public - and with them non-Aboriginal directors - started to wake up to the fact that Aboriginal history since white settlement was more complicated and shocking than they had acknowledged: Stolen land, stolen wages, stolen children, massacres, deliberate poisoning, abuse and discrimination in all forms.
Examples: Lousy Little Sixpence (Morgan 1982), Crocodile Dundee (Cornell 1985), Always Was, Always Will Be (McGrady 1987), Australia Daze (Fiske 1988)

Terra Populus (1990s)
The struggle of Torres Strait Islander Eddie Mabo to have his rights to ancestral land recognised, and the subsequent 1992 Mabo ruling of the High Court exposed the myth of 'terra nullius', and recognised the rights of Aboriginal people to land. The Mabo Case influenced the portrayal of land in many films that followed.

Other films assert the impact of activists on government policy and the Australian public's perception of Aboriginal issues.

Examples: Night Cries: A Rural Tragedy (Moffat 1990), Tent Embassy (Peters-Little 1992), Vacant Possession (Nash 1994), The Adventures of Priscilla Queen of the Desert (Elliot 1994), Mabo: Life of an Island Man (Graham 1997), Radiance (Perkins 1998)

Reconciliation efforts (2000s)
Mainstream television, notably ABC and SBS, broadcast or help produce more films that address Aboriginal issues and experiences and what it means to be Aboriginal in contemporary Australia. Some have become classics of this time.

It is also a time where films start laying bare Australia's racist past and the abuse of Aboriginal people, making audiences identify with Aboriginal characters, even if this meant siding against the white characters.

Aboriginal directors use film and television to document their cultures, promote social change and to entertain.

Examples: Land Of The Little Kings (Kootji Rayond 2000), Yolngu Boy (Johnson 2000), Australian Rules (Goldman 2002), The Tracker (de Heer 2002), Beneath Clouds (Sen 2002), Rabbit Proof Fence (Noyce 2002), Ten Canoes (de Heer 2006), Samson and Delilah (Thornton 2009), Bran Nue Dae (Perkins 2009)


Comic Creator Political Cartoons
Using Cartoons and Comic Strips Objects through Time
Anti-racism education for Australian Schools Aboriginal racism in cartoons
Behind the Lines The Australian Cartoon Museum

 Speeches & Quotes - Debating

The 35 Greatest Speeches in History Debate Judging Criteria
Paul Keating's Redfern Speech How to Debate
Kevin Rudd's Sorry Speech World Schools Debating Championships
Addressing Racism in Australia


Authors & Biographies
Entertainers Australian Biography
Notable Poets Australian Biographies
Australian Authors Aboriginal Authors
Notable Writers Notable Fillmmakers and Directors

Poetry, Children's Literature and Storytelling




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