The online Library provides a range of articles, website links & resources for educators & students
Hank Young




Culture & Country

Our Country Relationship with Country
Indigenous Land Management Many Nations One People
Caring four our Country National Parks of the Tweed Volcano Region
Heritage Meaning of Land to Aboriginal People
Aboriginal Land management & care Australian Indigenous Cultural Heritage
Sacred Land Indigenous Australians Caring for Country
Aboriginal People's connection to land Indigenous Concepts of Country and Sustainability
Protected Areas programme Garrigarrang: Sea Country
Indigeous Knowledge and Sustainability Sustainability: Land, Language and Culture
Working with Aboriginal Communities Working with Aboriginal People and Communities
Aboriginal Trail Land Rights, Sovereignty, and Health
The World's Indigenous People Indigenous kinship
Introduction to Indigenous Australia Rainforest Aboriginal Culture
Understanding Sea Country Aboriginal conservation in Arnhem Land

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Culture

Aboriginal Culture Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island)
Minjerribah/Stradbroke Island Treaty Circles (Minjerribah)
Indigenous Australian Art Australian Museum - Aboriginal & TSI cultures
Minjungbal Aboriginal Cultural Centre Aboriginal & TSI Histories and Cultures (curriculum)
Celebrating Culture Aboriginal culture and language - Yugambeh
Australian Indigenous Cultural heritage Understanding Culture
Aboriginal culture (images) Australian Aboriginal culture
Histories and Culture: Science Histories and Culture resources: History

 Aboriginal Identity

The Nature of Aboriginal Identity Australian Aboriginal Culture
Aboriginal Identity: Who is Aboriginal

Oldest Culture on Earth

Why connection to country is so important to communities Indigenous Australian Group Names
Counting, Health and Identity Culture not colour

 Family & Kinship

Kinship care Family
Aboriginal Kinship & Families Kinship, family and Identity
Family and kinship Kinship & Social Organisation
Indigenous kinship Anthropology of Kinship
Families & cultural diversity Indigenous Australians and kinship

Indigenous Philosophy, Spirituality and Knowledge

Religion and Ceremony Death
Secret / Sacred Stories Sacred Sites
Aboriginal Mythology Liminal Songlines
Sacred Sites Carnarvon Gorge The Dreamtime
Aboriginal Spirituality Whiteness / Indigenous Philosophy
Aboriginal Knowledge on the Internet Aboriginal spirituality and beliefs
The Dreaming Religion and Ceremony
Living Knowledge The Protection of Indigenous Knowledge's
NAARAP New Tracks
Kanyini - Uncle Bob Randall
Natural Heritage Trust Aboriginal Beliefs Connected with Uluru


Aboriginal Culture Aboriginal Totemism
The Big Bora Aboriginal Totems - Images 
Aboriginal Totems Repatriation: The End of the Beginning
Language, Totems and Stories Aboriginal and Torres Strait Collections (Australian Museum)
Aboriginal Remains Repatriation First Australians (National Museum of Australia)
Australian Animal Totems Language, Totems and Stories

 Economy & Society

Aboriginal Trade  Indigenous Tools and Technology  
Trade Routes Ancient Trade Routes Images
Trade and Trading Routes Songlines & Stone Axes
Ancient Trade Routes   Trade and Exchange  

 Bush Food & Plant Use

Bush Tucker Images Aboriginal Bush tucker hunting Bush Tucker Survival Guide
Top 10 Bush Medicines The Use of Plants by Australian Aboriginals
Aboriginal Trail   Aboriginal Bush Tucker youtube
Bush Tucker Plant Food  Healing Secrets of Aboriginal Bush Medicine  
Aboriginal Traditional Diet Uses of indigenous plants
Bush Tucker Plant Fact Sheet Aboriginal use of fungi
Aboriginal Plant use and Technology Aboriginal Plant Use
Aboriginal Use of Native Plants Bush Medicine
Our Indigenous Garden   Aboriginal Plant Use (SE Australia)

 Indigenous Land Knowledge

Important points to consider when studying Indigenous Philosophy in relation to land-use/management and relationship to the land:

  1. Often referred to as 'Country' a good explanation can be found in the works of Deborah Bird Rose.
  2. Central to the philosophy of the Aboriginal people is a spiritual and emotional connection to the land. Country is 'synonymous with life. The pinnacle of Indigenous philosophy is the sacredness of the earth; its value lies in its spiritual significance and in its connection with Aboriginal culture and law.
  3. The Indigenous relationship to land (Country) is very different to that expressed and experienced by non-Indigenous people. For traditional Aboriginal people, there was no concept of land ownership, or economic value attributed to land. Country represents an important component of Indigenous Philosophy in terms of a cycle process whereby We care for Country, Country cares for Us.
  4. Sustainable eco-systems; sustainable land management practices etc were utilized to ensure that the land (its flora, fauna etc) were able to continue to support those dependant on it it was seen as a giver of life.
  5. From a more in-depth philosophical perspective, the land (or Country) is seen as the giver of life, it has significance in the Dreaming, the totems of the Aboriginal people and the eventual return of the spirit to the land.

 Traditional Owners' ecological knowledge of any region can include:

  • Knowledge of the historical distribution of species, breeding patterns, life-cycles and food requirements;
  • Knowledge relating to the use of natural resources (including nutritional and medicinal qualities of resources);
  • Knowledge of rights, responsibilities and practices relating to the ceremonial management of plants and animals;
  • Knowledge of and names for a wide range of species and their seasonal patterns of growth;
  • Knowledge of impacts on Country by European settlement and related land use practices;
  • Knowledge of affliations of particular groups of Aboriginal people with particular Country and kinship between people.

see also: Religion and Ceremonies

Aboriginal TradeAboriginal Trade
The Hank Young Foundation - PO Box 590, Ormeau QLD 4208.    |   Ph: 07 3807 5541   Fax: 07 3807 5620
Trustee: Koorie Welfare & Education Pty Ltd. (Inc in VIC) Reg Office: Suite 11 Midway Arcade. Eltham VIC 3095. ABN 42631491 436